“Lost Victory”

eisenhower alexander devers general vittel vosges november 1944The ETO had its own Mason-Dixon line.  The border ran along the intersection of the Third and Seventh Armies.

General George Patton believed that he would be the first man on the banks of the Rhine, wrote to his wife that  Devers and his Seventh Army had  “made a monkey out of me.”  The Seventh reached the Rhine before Thanksgiving Day 1944, with an intact bridge and the capture of the historic Strasbourg to complete history’s first wintertime crossing of the Vosges Mountains.  Ironically, Hitler saved Patton’s reputation by way of the Ardennes offensive, only one month removed.

General Eisenhower professed support to take advantage of any opportunity of the moment.  After months of grasping to take a bridgehead on the Rhine, through a brilliant coup-de-main,  the Seventh Army handed the Allied Commander in Chief a historic opportunity:   An open door into Germany by way of Strasbourg and the intact Kehl Bridge.

In early November, Eisenhower ordered Generals  Montgomery, Bradley and Devers forward in a broad-front offensive to cross the Rhine River into Germany.  The goal:  End the war by Christmas 1944.   Bradley’s First Army General Hodges and Third Army General Patton employed meat-grinder tactics like those used in World War One.  While the American First and Third Armies sapped precious strength in the morass of the Hurtgen Forest and against the fortresses around Metz, the 44th I.D. and other Seventh Army units assailed the unassailable.  Their order: Mission Impossible.  Break through the enemy’s winter line in the Vosges Mountains and cross the Rhine.  All the while constrained by command  of the fewest resources and holding firmly last place in re-supply priority.  With Ike’s support, Monty hoarded supplies and troops and stood pat.   Dever’s Seventh Army attacked.  Then, to everyone’s amazement, the Seventh Army breached the Vosges and reached the Rhine. The frosting on the cake.  A liberated Strasbourg with its intact Kehl bridge over the Rhine into an undefended Germany.

gi infantry forward vosges mountainsThe day after the Strasbourg’s coup-de-main, Devers received Eisenhower and General Omar Bradley, at his headquarters at Vittel in the Vosges Mountains.  Instead of offering congratulations, the SHAEF commander came with the intent to borrow some of Seventh Army’s divisions.  Patton needed help in the Third Army’s stalled offensive just to the north.  Devers countered.   His proposal, strike boldly beyond the Rhine and bypass the German forces on the west bank.  And abandon Patton’s failed offensive and move the Third Army to Alsace under Devers’ command.   From this point, move Alexander “Sandy”  Patch and the Seventh Army across the Rhine for a northward push on the far side of the river inside Germany while Patton made a parallel drive northward on the near side of the Rhine.  The objective: Roll up the enemy’s entire rear and cause Germany to abandon the Rhine’s west bank all the way up to Holland.  And end the war in 1944 or early 1945.

This bold new decisive proposal startled his guests and his boss.  Genearl Omar Bradley fought against the plan with its transfer of Patton’s Third Army.  Eisenhower had nothing of this plan.   He did not even want Danvers’ forces to cross the Rhine, with or without Patton.  To General Patch and his Seventh Army staff, the Supreme Commander’s decision canceling the Rhine crossing amounted to a betrayal and smacked of favoritism.  It directly contradicted the formal orders under which the Seventh had brilliantly succeeded.  Eisenhower made no apologies nor explanations regarding ‘the why’  behind his changing 7th Army’s mission.   He simply commanded Devers to abandon any plan to cross the Rhine.  His new edict: Support Patton’s right flank in his failed offensive against the Saar.

Major General Robert L. Spragins 44th Infantry Division vosgesThe only point Devers won was to keep the divisions coveted by Patton.   Obviously the boss favored Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery.  Monty and his 21st Army Group continued to hold priority in the race to Berlin.  Even though Monty stood pat, disobedient of his commander’s explicit order to go on the offensive, Eisenhower would not budge for his stated position.  Dever’s soldiers fought and won.  Bradley enjoyed a strong secondary priority from his long-time friend, mentor and now his commander, General Eisenhower.   Bradley benefited by receiving the bulk of U.S. troop replacements and supplies while  Devers divisions ran short.  In the face of such favoritism, only the Seventh Army armies stood victorious in the fall of 1944.  For the ETO, the sole source of triumphant news-reel and newspaper headlines for a war-weary home front emanated from the unfortunate one, the Seventh.  All others failed to produce battlefield wins.  Or in the case of the Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, the First Viscount of el Alamein led 21st Army Group, did not even try.

Fate is often cruel.  General Alexander Patch, in early November 1944, lost his son Captain Alexander Patch Jr. near Luneville, France, while serving in the 79th Infantry Division.  Matters were different for the Eisenhower family.  A change of assignment greeted  Lt. John Eisenhower upon his arrival in France.  For this West Point graduate and  ‘favorite son’ instead of the command of an infantry platoon came a cushy and safe staff assignment.

Ironically, musician and song-writer John Fogerty response when asked what inspired his late 1960s hit song ‘Fortunate Son’ [lyrics] was: “Julie Nixon was hanging around with David Eisenhower, and you just had the feeling that none of these people were going to be involved with the war” (the Vietnam conflict).   David  Eisenhower is the son of the same John Eisenhower.

The legacy of the Eisenhower pre-occupation or bias to the ETO north continues many years removed from November 1944.  The story with legs remains the six months later coup de main of the Ludendorff Bridge at Remagen in March 1945.  History would have been different had the deserving got the due recognition, or at least allowed to continue what they were doing excellently. This is a story of how an internal conflict between morals destroyed a potential and remarkable victory in a path changing the war. The twisted fate of the seventh Army twisted the fate of the Strasbourg event, and I thought it to check it out in this post. The potential war ending and first to the Rhine River bridgehead at Strasbourg, with it’s superior Kehl Bridge, continues as the historical footnote.

With apology to Erich von Manstein, failure to capitalize at Strasbourg may well be one of America’s costliest ‘Lost Victories.’

Panzerbüchse Pz.B.38 and Pz.B 39 Anti-Tank Rifles

a. General
Antitank rifles are issued to the German Army on a scale of one for each platoon (or equivalent unit). This article discusses in detail the types of antitank rifles in the German Army, how to distinguish between them, their technical and operational features, on how to manage them and also the associated accessories. The usage of these rifles differs straight from the source based on their context of use. For example, it may be mounted on a vehicle on a mobile scenario, fixed on a platform on the side of a road with a gunman or on the top of a building. There are at least two types of antitank rifles in use by the Germans: The Polish antitank rifle (model 35), which has been renamed the Panzerbüchse Pz.B. 38 (antitank rifle) and the Panzerbüchse Pz.B 39,  a later model of the Pz.B 38.

b. How to Identify
Both the Pz.B.38 and Pz.B.39 may he identified by:
tactical symbol german army germany at anti-tank rifle Panzerbüchse(1) Folding shoulder stocks with a rubber shock absorber
(2) Bipod mount and carrying handle
(3) Muzzle brake
(4) Single-shot, falling-block action worked by a moving pistol grip, Pz.B.38 and by recoil in the Pz.B.39
Pz.B. is the German abbreviation for Panzerbüchse, which means “anti-tank rifle.” The German tactical symbol for antitank rifle is to the left.

c. Characteristics

(1) General. The Pz.B.38 and Pz.B.39 are light antitank weapons carried by infantry. They are single-shot rifles fired from a bipod mount. The bullet is an armor-piercing projectile with tracer compound and sometimes with a tear-gas powder in the base. The Pz.B.38 and Pz.B.39 are basically the same and differ only slightly in appearance and component parts. The description of the Pz.B.39 which follows will also serve for the 38.

(2) Table of characteristics.
Principle of operation: Single-shot, falling-block action
Caliber: 7.92 mm (.312 inch)
Ammunition: Caliber .50 case, necked down to take a caliber .312 bullet
Sights: Front Inverted V blade, with hood for shade and protection
Rear Open V notch, non-adjustable, sighted 300 meters (328 yards)
Carrying handle Folding shoulder stocks
Carrying sling
Over-all length:With shoulder stock in place: 62 1/4 inches, with shoulder stock folded 50 3/4 inches
Range: Effective 250 to 300 yards
Penetration: At 300 yards, ¾ inch (20 degrees impact) and 1 inch (normal impact) face-hardened plate; at 100 yards, 1 ¼ inch (normal impact) face-hardened plate
Muzzle velocity: 3,540 feet per second
Feed: By hand from two ammunition holders that clip on each side of stock forearm, each box holding 10 rounds of ammunition.

d. How to Operate

(1) Safety.-The safety lever is located on the tang
of the receiver just to the rear of the breechblock. To put the rifle on “safe,” move the safety lever until the letter “S” (sicher = “safe”) is exposed. To unlock, move the safety lever until the letter “F” (Feuer = “fire”) is exposed.
(2) To load and fire. Press the bipod lock and adjust the height of the bipod by turning the adjusting screw located underneath the pivot point of the bipod. Press the stock release button and snap the shoulder stock into place. Move the safety lever to the “fire” position. Push the pistol grip forward and downward, thus depressing the breechblock. Insert one round into the chamber, which is exposed by lowering the breechblock. Close the breechblock by pulling back and up on the pistol grip.  The piece is now ready to fire. The rifle is fired from the prone position and should be kept in the “safe” position until ready to fire.
(3) To unload. Move the safety lever to the “fire” position. Being careful to keep the finger out of the trigger guard, open the breech by pushing the pistol grip forward and downward. This will eject the cartridge from the chamber. The rifle is now unloaded.

e. Ammunition
Panzerbüchse Pz.B.38 and Pz.B 39 Anti-Tank Rifle German
The ammunition used has a rimless case the approximate size of the U. S. caliber .50case, but the projectile is approximately the size of the U. S. caliber .30 projectile. The German nomenclature 11 for this ammunition is Patr. 318 S.m.K. for the pointed bullet with steel core, and Patr. 318 S.m.K. (H) for the pointed bullet with hardened-steel core. The ammunition for the Pz.B.38 and the Pz.B.39, though of the same caliber as the rifle and machine-gun ammunition, will not function in either rifle or machine gun, as the dimensions of the cartridge case are much larger.

f. Maintenance
(1) Oiling and cleaning. The rifle should be given the usual care with respect to cleaning and lubricating. Oil should be used sparingly or not at all in hot, sandy, or dusty country.
(2) Stripping. Remove the pistol-grip pivot pin by compressing its spring lock and pushing it out from left to right. Remove the trigger pistol-grip group and for one type of label used to identify ammunition for the antitank rifle breechblock from the receiver by pulling downward on the pistol grip.  Disengage the breechblock from the trigger pistol-grip by sliding the breech out along the grooves in its sides. The breechblock can be stripped by pressing on the spring-loaded button and sliding the plate upward.  Removing the two pins from the side of the breechblock will release the trigger bar and hammer.
(3) Assembly.  Reverse the stripping procedure given in (2), on the opposite page.  Be sure that the safety is on “fire” position so that the breechblock can be replaced in its slots in the receiver walls.

g. Accessories
The accessories for these guns are a carrying sling and two ammunition holders that clip on the wooden forearm. A small cleaning kit similar to the rifle cleaning kit is carried by the antitank rifleman.

Walther P38

p38 p-38 p 38 walther pistol diagram
Walther P 38 P38 pistol waffenfabrik heeres pistole

The Walther P 38 was developed to replace the P 08 Luger.  The P 08 was a superb weapon but was expensive to produce and complex in operation and maintenance. The Pistole Luger 08 was almost a unanimous hand weapon used in the World Wars and accommodated several advanced features required for such a large-scale war. It was semi-automatic and recoil-operated and took out the working principle from the Borchardt Automatic Pistol.  Georg Luger secured the first patent on the pistol with Modell 1900 Parabellum as the first production model.

The Swiss Army started the trend of P08 Luger in the year 1900, followed by Germany and other countries. While the Swiss used the original version, the Germans used a modified version known as Pistol Model 1908, the P08. The Germans heavily used these guns during both the World Wars and is still regarded as a sign of the villainous activities of the Nazis.

The toggle-lock action of firing required high-pressure cartridges to avoid malfunction or jamming. This made the pistol highly sensitive to cartridge features. In 1933, the German army identified the need for a new replacement pistol.

Since these pistols were manufactured with the best quality materials to bring in accuracy and durability under extreme conditions, they had long lives compared to other small weapons. Still, it needed replacement to match the changing world, just like a simple Bitcoin Code getting updated to match the markets.

In 1933, the German army identified the need for a new replacement pistol. From 1933 to 1938, a long development program created the successful P 38 design.  This design struck a fine balance. The outcome, a weapon rich in capabilities yet inexpensive to produce and well suited for mass production.  Walther received the contract to manufacture the P 38 in 1938.
P38 Walther pistol Waffen SS soldier
From the onset, the P 38 proved an exceptional  service pistol. The weapon was robust, accurate and well balanced.   Field stripping and maintenance was simple and rapid.  Many safety features included a hammer safety and an indicator that a round was ‘chamber loaded.’ The cartridge was the proven and widely available Parabellum 9-mm. Despite this success and mass production, the P 08 was never fully replaced by the P38.  More than any other combatant nation, the Germans favored the handgun.  The pistol was no status symbol or specialized weapon for the few. It was an essential cog in the German war machine from the rear echelon to the front lines.   Demand outstripped supply.
The P 38 pistol was well liked by the German army and a prized war trophy.

MP40 SMG

Maschinenpistole 40 mp40 mp 40
The heavy equipment, created, remodeled and used by the Germans during the World Wars were seen as excellent war technologies. The Panzers, the Tigers, the Sluggers etc were superstars in the wars that changed the face of the earth. There was one little star which accompanied most of the fighting soldiers, the MP40 submachine gun. With the capacity to make 500 rounds of fire in a single minute, the gun was nothing short of deadly. Due to the extensive use, mass production was necessary and therefore manufacturing had to be economical without compromising on the shooting efficiency of the gun. It had to be light, yet made from strong materials. The design of M40 was actually borrowed from the MP38 gun. Find out here the story of these two power-packed guns. When the predecessor to the Maschinenpistole 40 or the MP40, the MP38,  was first produced in 1938, the design was revolutionary because of the way the weapon was manufactured.  The weapon itself is quite orthodox.  Unlike the Luger, the MG34 and the all other German small arms before it, the MP38 was designed for mass production, like the Model T Ford.  Parts were primarily stamped instead of machined, finishing was modest and the stock woodless.   The goal: Mass arming of Germany’s storm-troopers with a capable and inexpensive yet reliable submachine gun.

For the most part, the MP38 met this design goal except for one nasty problem.  When jarred, the gun often did  start firing by itself.  This run-away submachine gun caused numerous friendly casualties.  The next generation, the MP40, fixed this dangerous defect.  Mass production of the MP40 was taken to even a higher level with the use of even more simple and inexpensive stamped parts and additional streamlining of its production.

The result: the Maschinenpistole 40 was churned out in large numbers.  Just over one million were made of all versions in the course of the war.  The gun had relatively low recoil even fired fully automatic.  This is due to its slower rate of fire and its 9MM bullet.   Nevertheless, it gave the Maschinenpistole 40 a respectable accuracy compared to the American Thompson.   The resulting sound provided a nickname,  the “Burp gun.”  The MP40 is often incorrectly called the Schmeisser, after weapons designer Hugo Schmeisser.   The weapon was coveted by the Germans and the Allies.   Because of its light weight, the MP40 was highly esteemed and favored by the German Fallshirmjägers paratroopers and panzer grenadiers.
panther panzer mark v mp40 submachine gun motorcycle panzer grenadiers

MP40 Lleibstandarte 1st Waffen-SS Grenadiers sub-machine gun
mp40 mp 40 burp gun sub-machine specifications Maschinenpistole 40

German Infantry Mortars

The German infantry support mortar of WW2 is an extremely effective weapon, dreaded and revered by the Allies. Mortars are a classic indirect fire weapon at short ranges. The mortar is a valuable weapon for infantry units, akin to a personal artillery battery dedicated to a small infantry unit commander.  Some German units went so far as to have a mortar assigned to every platoon.  The mortar, as with the hand gun, was thoroughly embraced by the German Army as essential. Or rather, it quickly became a better common weapon for the troops. Among the various superior qualities of a mortar as compared to the regular gun, one feature makes it capable of giving the battalion an upper hand for advancing into the enemy zone. Just continue reading this article to know what this feature is.

A mortar  does not have to see the target to fire at it. Mortars can fire blind over hills, buildings, banks and rivers.  So long as targets are pre-registered, the main advantage of the mortar is its ability to bring down rapid fire on multiple targets with minimum delay.  And it operates under the most appalling conditions, be it night, oppressive fog of the Hartz Mountains, Russian winter snow, or in rain. But performance does suffer. Mortars fire rounds at slow speeds. So the angle of fire is high to achieve any range. For this reason a mortar round is in the air for a long period of time. Gusty wind can reduce accuracy dramatically with range.  Rain or damp weather can also reduce range.

Mortars are man portable. It can be moved into and out of action quickly. The mortar has no recoil system so it is essential that the weapon is situated on firm ground, able to absorbed the recoil. Mortars work very well against infantry and light vehicles but against hardened targets like tanks and bunkers, their effectiveness is limited.

Mortar ammunition varies. The primary round of World War II is the high explosive fragmentation round. Lethality was  up to 50 yards away from impact.  Mortars were also effective for production of smokescreens and illumining rounds to provide light at night.

A mortar crew usually consists of at least three members. The gunner controls the deflection and elevation of the weapon.  The assistant gunner loads the round at the command of the gunner. The ammunition man prepares and hands over ammunition to the assistant gunner.

German Mortars of World War II

The mortar was ‘born’ in World War One. Originally the mortar was built to arch a round accurately enough  at a high angle to land inside narrow enemy trenches.  Mortars did a magnificent job in the ‘War to end all Wars.’

After the Great War, all major armies embraced this new weapon.  In the period of time between the World Wars, German weapons designers had a clean slate on which to design the next generation .   The first released infantry mortars was the 5-cm leichte Granatwerfer 36 or leGrW 36 (light grenade-launcher model 1936).  The date, 1936.  This mortar was a failure. The weapon was overly complicated, under-powered and lacked range. In relation to its poor performance, the mortar was expensive to make. By 1941, the 36 was withdrawn from front-line service.  Many found their  way to the  Italian Army.

+ leGrW 36 Diagram

The 8-cm schwere Granatwerfer 34 or 8-cm sGrW 34 (heavy grenade-launcher model 1934) earned a reputation in line with the fearsome 88 anti-aircraft gun  and the Tiger Tank.  Among allied front-line soldiers  this mortar was dreaded for its accuracy and rate of fire.  Captured 34s were eagerly employed against the Germans.

The design was straight forward. Its designer and manufacture Rheinmetall-Borsig produced a high-quality weapon. Yet the mortar’s  reputation had little to do with innovation.  Its high status was primarily the result of through training of German mortar crews . They were experts at their craft.  German mortar crews always seemed to possess the ability to engage in and out of action rapidly.  They paid careful attention to pre-registration and other fire control aids.   The enterprising German mortar crews were able to bring fire down rapidly on their adversary.

5-cm leichte Granatwefer 36 or leGrW 36 German light grenade-launcher model 1936
8-cm schwere Granatwefer 34 8-cm sGrW 34 heavy grenade-launcher model 1934
8-cm schwere Granatwefer 34 or 8-cm sGrW 34 German heavy grenade-launcher model 1934

Suomi m/1931 Sub-Machine Gun

Background

Suomi m/1931 Sub-Machine Gun ski troops finland snow winter warStalin expected Finland to be another easy territory grab when he ordered the conquest of Finland. This David versus Goliath mismatch pitted the mass of his empire with some 250 million subjugates against a paltry four million Finns.   Stalin had little to fear.  Or so it seemed.  The 1939 ‘Non-Aggression Pact’ with Nazi Germany secured the USSR’s flanks.  Finland was inside the Soviet sphere of influence per the accord.  Hitler’s army would not interfere.  Recent political and Red Army successes in Poland, Manchuria and the Baltic’s involved nations of equal or superior power to the Finns.  The Finns appeared weak.  The Finnish communists in exile at Moscow echoed this theme to Stalin.  The Finnish government desperately sought to avert the impending conflict through direct negotiations.  Stalin and Molotov played with them. They knew well an isolated Finland had precious little military equipment and supplies for a sustained war.  Finland stood alone.   Exposed.   On the eve of battle, confident Soviet commanders instructions included a stern reminder to avoid incursion into neutral Sweden after having breached any defenses and then reaching the distant Swedish border with Finland.

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The Soviets invaders were by taken by surprise in the Winter War starting in November 1939.   The Finns resisted fiercely under the resolute leadership of their commander in chief,  Gustaf Mannerheim.  This was not the anticipated cake-walk.  It was more of a frozen hell in which hundreds of thousands Red Army soldiers died.  Starved, shot, booby-trapped, froze to death, by any means possible, they perished in mass in the cold dark Finnish forests and swamps.  The gallant Finns battled and employed every resource at their command and extracted fearful losses upon the invading Red Army.  The world cheered as the innocent Finns stymied the elbow deep in blood Russian invader.   A humiliated Red Army floundered in check and bloodied for the better part of the first four months of fierce combat by the tougher and more nimble defenders.

vassa burning clatskanie chief finland suomi winter war
“… in war the psychological factors are often decisive.   An adversary who feels inferior is in reality so.”    Field Marshal Carl Gustav Baron von Mannerheim – Finnish Supreme Commander, The Memoirs of Field Marshal Mannerheim, 1953.

Ultimately the mass and sheer power of the Soviets proved too great.  After nine months of a meat-grinder war, the Finns sued for peace.  Stalin desired to extricate his army from this expensive conflict also.   A demanding peace treaty granted a short-term peace to Finland with independence but at a high price in lost territories and financial retributions.   Hitler’s attack on the Soviets in June 1941 drug the Finns into second unwanted conflict, again with terrible consequences for the nation.

To learn more, visit a superb web-site dedicated to the military history of the Finish army, URL:  www.jaegerplatoon.net/.

  m/1931 M31 Suomi submachine sub-machine gun Finland konepistooli
Finland’s greatest assets of the 1939- 1940 Winter War were its tough skilled outdoorsman soldiers instilled with the belief that “One Finn is equal to ten Russians.”  Their weapon of choice, a sub-machine gun designed by Finland’s native son, a self-educated genius,  Aimo Johannes Lahti.  Lahti designed and constructed many other weapons of note and of various types –  from pistols to assault guns and an anti-tank rifle. The most famous is the m/1931 (M31) Suomi submachine gun – konepistooli.  Imitation is the ultimate form of flattery. The Lahti M31 inspired the design of the German Bergmann MP34 and the Soviet PPD 1934G/38G and PPSh41 submachine guns.  In the pantheon of modern gun designers, the prolific Lahti belongs as a peer with the likes of Hiram Maxim, John Browning and Mikhail Kalashnikov.

+ Magnify Sotalippu/m 1931+ M31 Image Store

Not much about the legendary Suomi m/1931 submachine gun design is extraordinary. The simple “blowback mechanism” and an orthodox layout are quite similar in design to the German Bergmann MP18.  Prominence is achieved through quality of manufacturing, its high volume ammunition feed system and its accuracy.  In the hands of the Finnish soldier, this was a terrifying weapon.  To the Finns, a soldier armed with the M31 was another “Tikkakoski mannequin.”  Tikkakoski is the place where the gun was produced.  The Soviets invaders had a different name for these defenders: “Belaya Smert” or “the White Death”.

sotalippu battleflag finland finnish suomiExpensive to manufacture and heavy, the m/1931 was lavishly made in the both the quality of the materials used and the excellence of the machining. The whole gun, the body and bolt were machined from solid metal. The machining detail was demandingly precise.  Combat in the bitter Finnish winter requires a weapon which will function reliably in Finland’s extreme artic conditions.  Soldiers in field venerated their Suomi for its reliability. Its excellent construction enabled the gun to fire under any conditions without ever seeming to jam. To the shooter, the extra weight became a non-issue.  The gun represented life to the Finn and death to the unfortunate Soviet.

With a rate of fire up to 900 rounds per minute, and with a massive 71-round drum magazine, the Suomi packed a lot of firepower.   When first released,  it established a record for rate of fire and held this record over a period of years.   In spite of this high rate of fire, the M31 remained very easy to handle.  Its weight and pistol caliber cartridge account for the stability.  Add to this another paradox.  The Suomi, a sub-machine gun, proved accurate beyond 100 meters, the standard range for this class of gun.  Accurate fire reached the range of 300 meters.  Such accuracy is due to the quality of manufacture and a long barrel of over 12 inches in length.   Hot loads also contributed.   Standard 9mm Parabellum performance of 365 meters/ second (1,200 f/s) was pushed upwards to 400 meter/second (1,310 f/s) with an 7.5 gram full metal jacket slug propelled by a white-hot powder load.  This weapon’s robust mechanism allowed use of ammunition that pushed the performance envelope to the maximum.

P 08 (Luger Pistol)

luger P 17 P17 Artillerie or Artillery model pistol
P 08 (Luger)

Over two million P 08 weapons were produced by various manufacturers in numerous main variants of the pistol that is typically but incorrectly known just as the Luger

Pictured to the left is the Pistole 08 (for P 08), one of the main variants. The German navy adopted the Luger pistol first in 1904. The German army followed suit in 1908. and the pistol remained the standard German service pistol into the late 1930s. The Luger was produced in several calibers, but the primary and most common is the 9 mm Parabellum (which in Latin is the term “Pro War”). This cartridge was specifically developed for the Luger pistol.

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luger p 08 pistol parabellum
The P 08 was replaced by the Walther P 38 because the Luger was too expensive to produce and was a complicated weapon for the average solider to maintain in the field. In late 1942 the final German manufacturing run of the weapon concluded. The P 38 never wholly replaced the P 08 in German service during the war.

The standard P 08 has a barrel 103 mm (4.055 in) long. The P 17 Artillerie or Artillery model pictured at the top has a 203-mm (8-in) barrel. Luger pistols were among the most prized of all World War II trophies.+ View Luger Apparel & Gifts

Rare German 15cm Kanone 39 gun

German 15 cm Kanone 39 gun

This was a rare gun captured during the world war and is still appreciated for its exceptional qualities. Such exceptional qualities do not come about by chance. These are created with care and need complete dedication, innovation, and hard work apart from that spark of genius. This kind of ingenuity is seen only once in a while and is rare.

When a super intelligent person gets an idea then he does not spare any effort in implementing it as well. For example, this Gun was created using the best metal. It was created in such a way that the army could use it without much effort and was liked by all the soldiers due to its features.

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15 cm Kanone 39 german artillery gun

 1

Long Tom 155mm cannon maintenance by crew WW2

   Long Tom 155mm cannon maintenance by crew WW2

 

 

The statement “Online trading portals involve a lot of hard work and dedication” should not confuse you. It is true for the developers but not for the traders and investors. A trading program works wonderfully only when it is created with care and dedication, with foresight and latest techniques. When a genius created a virtual currency, he had a different type of economy in his mind. He created a block-chain and limited the number of coins that could be created. Bitcoin was the original or the first digital currency.

Today there are many virtual currencies in the digital world and only some of them have been accepted across the world. The next step was inevitable and the cryptocurrency was welcomed in the stock market. Now there are many trading programs and you cannot easily choose anyone. As it is trading online should be started only if you are comfortable with the process. The first step towards a successful stint in the digital currency trading endeavor would be to understand the way the entire process pans out.

The digital currencies are not created or controlled by any one government and in fact, many countries are trying to bring them under more scrutiny and control. These are created online by software programming process using block chains on very powerful computers. But these can also be traded through these software trading programs created specifically for the purpose.

So whether you are a novice or an experienced trader, you can also take part in the digital currency revolution and trade online through the programs recommended here. Some of these are exceptionally well developed and are able to get amazing and consistent profits. The most significant part is that you can take the help of legitimate and real brokers and trade any time of the day. The cryptocurrencies are used around the world and the robot is also programmed to work untiringly. You can use the recommendations provided by the robot or instruct it to trade on your behalf and set the parameters.

If you find any avenue of investment or trading attractive, the first step is to get more information. You can read the comprehensive information given on the link mentioned above. This comes from a very reliable expert group and their suggestions and recommendations can be accepted for a great profitable career in trading digital currency.

Militaria Images

Album of some of the images used in products available at the Flume Creek Militaria Online Store

These remind us of the modern tools. The album is replete with images of the guns and arsenal used by the army to overcome the enemy lines. Today most of the wars are waged online and involve monetary and financial tools.

Anyone can use the right tools and move ahead in the world. If you want to conquer the modern world, then the most important factor is to have more money than others. Most of the rich people in the world have created a fortune either by producing products or services or through the stock market. Today the stock market is within the reach of every person due to the revolutionary introduction of automated trading systems. Some of these are exceptionally brilliant. You can find out here if the program chosen by you is genuine or not.

This program is completely secure and provides a safe platform. You can register using the basic details and start trading. All the brokers here have valid license to help you trade online. The system can be used on autopilot and you can also use the signals to trade manually. The sophisticated robots are able to analyse huge amounts of information to detect the changing trends. The tips provided by the robots are almost always accurate and that is how this program has been giving consistently good returns. The tools and their right use help a person win the war

 

Thompson “Tommy Gun” M1A1 and the Panther are two of the 12 finest weapons fo WWII used in this 2006 calendar
Tiger I and “Das Reich” 5th Waffen SS Panzer Division Crest
Heidelberg
First to the Rhine
Browning BAR
P 17 Luger “Artillery” Model Pistol
Thompson 45 cal submachine gun
MP40 “Burp” submachine gun
Sturmgewehr 44 – StG44 assault rifle
Walther P38
VE Day
USO Dancer
Colt 1911 .45 cal pistol
M3 “Grease gun” submachine gun
M1 Garand Rifle
US 44th Infantry Division
71st Regiment Crest
US 3rd Division – “The Rock of the Marne”
US Frist Division- the “Big Red One”
US Marine Corps First Division
US Marine Corp Eagle, Globe and Anchor insignia
2nd SS Division Das Reich
Grossdeutschland Division
2nd Division “Indianheads”
29th Division: “The Blue and Gray”
Crest of the 5th Waffen SS Panzer Division – “Wiking” or “Viking”
6th SS Mountain Gebirgs Division Nord
17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen
1st SS Division Leibstandarte